台灣台北市大安區潮州街94號B1 106 No.94, Chaozhou St., Da’an Dist., Taipei City 106004, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
tribe against machine
shihweichieh.com
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The Methodology of the Production of the Laser Dye Pattern Converted from the Incan Dark Constellation


Abstract
Inspired by the IC project, this project attempts to use cross-domain cooperation to enhance the performance of the art field through the cooperation of textile art and astronomical institutions, so as to create a contemporary time system that is parallel to cultural astronomy and anthropology. This research attempts to transform contemporary astronomical data into textile representations within the framework of data visualization, and to create specific channels for the dialogue between textile culture and contemporary astronomical databases. The main experimental goals of this experiment are two: first, to create contemporary definitions and coordinates for the abstract ancient Inca dark constellation culture. Second, to establish a practical link between cultural astronomy and contemporary astronomical databases.


Keywords: cultural astronomy, Laser Dye Project, data visualization, archaeological cosmology, interferometry, Inca, dark constellations, ADQL, textile art


1. Dark constellation and Gaia Archive

The information on the dark constellation of the Inca mainly comes from Gary Urton's literature or based on his research, the Milky Way in the sky has served human civilization in various forms in various cultures with a long history, whether in navigation, agriculture, construction, etc. Etc., especially when we are talking about the Milky Way, we must understand that the Milky Way observed in the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere are very different images. The Milky Way system in South America can be roughly divided into the Desana, Barsana system and the Quechua system of the Inca, and the Quechua system is referred to in this exhibition. The Inca Empire in South America uses the Quechua system. Asian language family, its Quechua language is called Tawantinsuyu. In the sky of South America, the Milky Way is called Mayu in the Inca culture. These civilizations believe that the Milky Way in the sky and the rivers on the earth are connected. It can be seen from the street system that the main one leads from the capital Cusco to the former capital Tiahuanaco. This road roughly coincides with the Vilcanota river basin and the northwest to southeast axis of the Milky Way. 


figure 1: Gary Urton presents the long distance ceque from Cusco to Tiahuanaco at Stellar Connections conference.

There were two types of constellations in Inca astronomy: (a) Sidereal constellations or bright stars, consisting of individual bright stars that make up a "constellation", much like the Greco-Roman constellations. (b) Dark (or black) constellations, which are condensations of interstellar gas and dust that appear as dark spots or outlines in the bright galaxy and diffuse the galaxy. In all likelihood, the Inca culture was the only culture in which both constellation types appeared in the sky at the same time. I plotted the ranges of these seven dark constellations with the vector area tool on the Gaia database. And exhibited works made from materials intercepted from Yutu (Tinamou) dark constellation in the exhibition at node94 in Taipei. Among the so-called dark constellations of the Incas, the darkest and most representative are: the bird symbolizing the Andean partridge or Lluthu, also known in other regions as Chaqwa, or P'isaqa, Yuktuq, Yutu, etc. Lluthu is located in the region occupied by the Southern Cross, to the left of the two stars in the Southern Cross, forming what is now known as the coalsack nebula.


figure 2: Seven Inca dark constellations drawn in Galactic coordinates with the polygon tool according to the literature in the Gaia Archive Visualization.


Figure 3: Left: According to Garry Urton's 1981 publication, seven dark constellations of the Incas can be identified. From right to left are (1) Machacuay, (2) Hanp'atu, (3) Yutu, (4) Yacana, (5) Uñallamacha, (6) Atoq, and (7) Yutu. Art by Jessica Gullberg, constellations from Urton (1981). Center: The Crux constellation and the coalsack nebula at its lower left. Right: The region of Yutu (Tinamou) Ican dark constellation created with polygon tool in the Gaia Archive Visualisation.



2. Astronomical Data Query Languege (ADQL)
Astronomy Data Query Language (ADQL) is an astronomical data query language in XML format. It is based on a subset of SQL and adds region as a minimum support. This region implements the function of cone search (Cone Search). ADQL-circle). The astronomical data access portal or client program sends an ADQL query statement in the form of an XML document to the query interface of the astronomical data node, and its internal ADQL parser converts the query statement into a SQL standard statement recognized by the relational database. [8] After using the polygon tool to draw the region of the Yutu constellation from the Gaia Archive, a string of ADQL codes can be obtained. In this exhibition, this string of query language can be regarded as the contemporary range definition of reconstructing the Inca dark constellation using contemporary astronomical data, Enter this string of ADQL code under the Search tab on the Gaia Archive page to download all star data in this region:

All celestials data within the dark constellation Yutu


SELECT * FROM gaiaedr3.gaia_source WHERE 1=CONTAINS(POINT('ICRS',gaiaedr3.gaia_source.l,gaiaedr3.gaia_source.b), POLYGON('ICRS', -65.22101, -0.24904, -65.67713, -0.35016, -66.1528, -0.08804, -66.57714, -0.36802, -67.12908, -0.10558, -67.56428, -0.29421, -68.89579, -1.62916, -68.62142, -2.30916, -68.8, -2.70552, -69.11419, -2.95706, -69.26885, -3.7139, -68.97418, -4.00531, -68.36638, -3.63234, -67.8434, -3.30225, -67.27032, -3.29176, -66.53433, -3.3443, -65.01378, -3.18955, -64.56345, -2.97118, -64.71398, -2.41462, -64.76301, -1.84342, -64.39504, -1.0149, -64.6983, -0.4463))


All celestials data in the region of seven dark constellations, but only source_id, ra, dec, bp_rp, bp_g, g_rp are extracted, and the duplicated sources are filtered out.


SELECT gaia_source.source_id,gaia_source.ra target="_blank">gaia_source.ra,gaia_source.dec target="_blank">gaia_source.dec,gaia_source.bp_rp,gaia_source.bp_g, gaia_source.g_rp FROM gaiaedr3.gaia_source WHERE 1=CONTAINS(POINT('ICRS',gaiaedr3.gaia_source.ra,gaiaedr3.gaia_source.dec), POLYGON('ICRS', 175.2760617304606, -62.00225242666287, 174.28320299429646, -61.97345768025377, 173.4807689926867, -61.58488006066786, 172.45041698098134, -61.72320783701981, 171.52743364230895, -61.299297931721114, 170.54175111994627, -61.33330945865088, 166.8992832068622, -62.092368546941124, 166.87177855055245, -62.825462956905454, 166.16637478861853, -63.11903032048014, 165.30464154343062, -63.22139379489159, 164.27783109367917, -63.84368272844407, 164.6033069416968, -64.23234156173903, 166.22508894637772, -64.14165588786864, 167.61987172570397, -64.04127219549939, 168.84679143068394, -64.24406985325369, 170.39576868841323, -64.55171444929078, 173.88365812116314, -64.8837509320528, 175.04324022446434, -64.80067519605362, 175.05946590599044, -64.22420371072143, 175.3037553082024, -63.66103762821697, 176.57269182931023, -62.95609931335926, 176.24599323820146, -62.32942505800025))AND gaia_source.duplicated_source!='True'


figure 4: the ADQL page in Gaia Archive.


3. Laser Dye works based on dark constellation data and the production methodology
After downloading the above "dark constellation dats", I produced an audio-visual work and several laser dye works. The way to make audiovisual works is to link the data of each celestials to the control parameters of a fractal generator in the Max environment, so that each celestials data can produce a unique image, that is to say, each frame has a unique image, which can be seen as the graphical identity of the celestials. Since I am not an expert of astronomy and anthopology, the graphic generation and the use of data here cannot reflect the connection between the datas and the constellation culture, but only symbolically make a preliminary identity establishment for the dark constellation culture. The data used here include coordinates, bp_rp, bp_g, g_rp, phot_g_mean_flux, phot_bp_mean_flux, phot_rp_mean_flux. I chose these parameters because they may be related to the system of false color. False color refers to the use of a color different from the true color to describe an object in an image, which is related to the production of astronomical pictures, such as the production of the black hole photo. Another reference for designing the image is the working principle of interferometry of the ALMA telescope, so I applied some styles look like magnetic fields or interference fringes in the design, but these are only based on my subjective imagination of interferometry. All the datas of the celestials within Yutu dark constellation are connected to the control parameters of a 2D wave player, therefore each celestials data are given sonic context too. The original audio is a 10-second sample with drum beats and some breakbeats.


figure 5:Astral image identity made in max


figure 6:the max patch produce the audiovisual.


4. The Laser Dye piece production
For the exhibition I made three 110 x 110 cm Laser Dye works, the contents of which are taken from the fractal patterns generated from the astral data transformed above. There is also a 3 x 3 meter live installation with all the star coordinates in the dark constellation Yutu.

Laser Dye is a technique I invented in 2015. It employees a programmable laser machine as the exposure light source for cyanoplate development. First, the natural fiber textile is pre-coated with the sensitizer, and then a 405 nm laser light source is used as the exposure light. Since the graphic is exposured with the laser selectively without the negtive film or mask, relatively large-scale cyanotype image can be made with the nutural textile or sewn garment.


figure 6: Yutu Dark Constellation on-site laser dyeing installation




figure 8: The Laser Dye works converted from dark constellation data (above) and the close-up photos of it (below three).


5. References


  1. On the astronomical content of the sacred landscape of Cusco in Inka times.
  2. List of dark nebulae
  3. Astronomy Picture of the Day Index - Nebulae: Dark Nebulae
  4. The Knots in the Quipu, and in the Friar's Belt
  5. The Khipu Field Guide
  6. ADQL polygon
  7. Some notes on the Inka Constellations
  8. Astronomical Data Query Language
  9. If Time was Wearable and Foladable - The Laser Dye Project